Geography- basic overview

Bulgaria is situated in South-East Europe and occupies the North-East part of the Balkan Peninsula


Occupied area: approx. 110993 km2   


Borders: The Black Sea forms Bulgaria’s border to the East. The country borders Turkey to the South-East, Greece to the South, Macedonia and Serbia to the West, and the Danube is the natural border with Romania to the North.


The climate is temperate continental, Mediterranean influence is typical for the southern parts of the country.


Mountains & Valleys


The Balkan Mountains stretch from the North-West of Bulgaria to the Black Sea Coast and form an important climatic border. The highest peak Botev rises up to 2376m. The Balkan range is a significant part of the Bulgarian History and nowadays many visitors are attracted by the numerous monuments and architectural reserves hidden in this area.


The area between the Balkan Mountains to the South and the Danube to the North is occupied by the Danubian Plain which is one of the most fertile regions in Bulgaria.  The old Bulgarian capitals of Pliska and Preslav displaying architectural remainders of the period when Bulgaria was founded are situated in the South-East part of the Plain.


The Sredna Gora Mountains stretch parallel to the Balkan Range, its highest peak is Bogdan, 1604m.


The mild and sheltered climate of the valley situated between the Balkan Range and the Sredna Gora Mountains proved to be perfect for the Rose type brought from Persia - ‘Damascina’. In the course of time the region became known as The Valley of the Roses and nowadays it welcomes many guests to the Rose Festival in the beginning of June.


The Thracian Valley occupies the central parts of South Bulgaria. This fertile region is known for its extended fruit-growing, cultivation of grain and best quality wines. One third of the Bulgarian wine manufacturing is concentrated in the Thracian Valley. The South parts of the region are popular for tobacco and cotton production.


The widespread Rhodope Mountains occupy large parts of South Bulgaria. The highest peak is Perelik, 2198m. The magic attractiveness of the Rhodope Region is accompanied by outstanding cuisine, delicious wines and true hospitality. Legend has it that Orpheus was born in the Rhodopes.


The Pirin Mountains rise to the West of the Rhodopes. It is the second highest in the country with the peak Vihren, 2915m. The alpine character of the mountains offers best conditions for skiing (Bansko) and also throughout the year - for hiking.


The Rila Mountains are the highest in Bulgaria and on the Balkan Peninsula with the peak Mussalah, 2925m. Rila attracts many visitors with the famous Rila Monastery (UNESCO World Heritage site), with the country’s largest ski resort Borovets and with the various hiking routes and the unique 7 Rila Lakes.